Moshe Ben-Chaim
My question is what is Judaism's view on reward and punishment in this world as it relates to personal Divine providence? Meaning to say that if I do something wrong should I be concerned that God will then punish me for that wrong in this world? Does God in general do this?
According to Rambam, one must be on a level to receive punishment. Rambam quoted King David when King David was referring to the other nations, he said, "c'vhamos nidmu", "they are equal to animals". Meaning, just as animals have no providence, so do those who have no G-d.
Also, it is written, "aise asher Hashem ohave, yochiach", "who ever G-d loves, He rebukes". Meaning, if one is honestly striving for the right life, G-d will steer him from the wrong way, and that is what we mean by punishment. We can term punishment more accurately as a "corrective measure."

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